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V2-1944: Development of methodology and system for verification of GNSS permanent networks and stations

Project Title Development of methodology and system for verification of GNSS permanent networks and
Project team: UL FGG: Oskar Sterle, Bojan Stopar, Miran Kuhar, 
Polona Pavlovčič Prešeren, Gašper Štebe, 
Veton Hamza
GIS: Klemen Ritlop, Niko Fabiani, Mihaela Triglav Čekada, Katja Oven, Dalibor Radovan

18 months

1. 11. 2019 – 30. 4. 2021

Project Code: V2-1944
Lead partner: UL FGG
Project leader: Assist. Prof. Dr. Oskar Sterle (UL FGG)

Geodetic Institute of Slovenia

Source of finance:

Slovenian Research Agency


Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia

Key words: GNSS, continuously operating GNSS station, network of continuously operating GNSS stations, coordinate system, reliability 


According to the Property Registration Act of 2008, all procedures in Slovenia related to the registration of real estate must be managed in the new national coordinate system ETRF89/TM and D96/TM, respectively. National coordinate system is realized with a network continuously operating reference stations (CORS) GNSS stations SIGNAL (Slovenia-Geodesy-NAvigation-Location) and a network of numerous passive geodetic points GNSS EUREF on the territory of Slovenia. Users may determine coordinates of new geodetic points on a basis of SIGNAL in national coordinate system in real-time as well as in post-processing mode.

However, CORS of SIGNAL and combined geodetic network or 0. order are not the only CORS on the territory of Slovenia. For the purposes of real estate registering and other geospatial projects, private sector also uses CORS, network of CORS or geodetic points, forming the passive geodetic network, that are not part of state determined GNSS networks. These are stations, networks and geodetic points, established by private companies that are used for positioning with adequate relative precision, but with questionable precision and accuracy within the national coordinate system. Currently, private stations and networks are being established on a basis of private sector needs and without any pre-determined procedure and criteria in order to ensure high quality agreement with national coordinate system. The quality level of private CORSs determined coordinates and their agreement with national coordinate system may currently only be speculated. Due to the lack of knowledge of the situation, we may also only speculate about the quality and reliability of private CORSs establishment and maintenance. This only means we have no control over the quality of stations or networks as well as over the positioning in the national coordinate system.

Geospatial data are useful only when presented in unique coordinate system of high quality, so it is only reasonable that all CORS and network of CORS, used for national geospatial data infrastructure, should fulfil the same quality criteria as CORS of SIGNAL and 0. order.

Project goals

Within the project, we will examine the guidelines and methods of CORS establishment and their maintenance, the determination of CORS coordinates in adequate coordinate system and methods for GNSS data distribution. On a basis of research of our own and good practice examples, at home and abroad, we will propose a methodology for establishment of CORS, namely:

  • location selection and the impact of the location surrounding on GNSS observation over a longer period of time,
  • equipment of CORS that must be of high quality to ensure continuous operation and observations GNSS from several frequencies,
  • determined coordinates that represent the origin for positioning of new geodetic points and should be determined in national coordinate system with high quality in the long term and
  • methods of CORS data distribution that are used for positioning of new points in national coordinate system.

The main objective of the project is to provide a methodology for establishment of CORS (network of CORS) that will ensure the positioning of new geodetic points in a national coordinate system with the same quality as in the case of CORS network SIGNAL

Project work packages

The project consists of five working packages (WP), namely:

  • WP 1: Analysis of guidelines and requirements for the establishment of CORS and network of CORSs,
  • WP 2: Establishing a methodology for quality control in case of CORS and network of CORSs,
  • WP 3: Testing of the proposed quality control methodology and positioning quality on a basis of single CORSs and network of CORSs,
  • WP 4: Suggestions for the implementation of the proposed methodology and
  • WP 5: Dissemination of results.